Forensic biology is the application of biology to law enforcement. It includes the sub disciplines of Forensic serology, Forensic botany, Forensic entomology, Forensic Microbiology, Forensic odontology, anthropology and various DNA or protein based techniques.DISCIPLINES
SEROLOGY & HAEMATOLGY
Forensic biologists examine blood and other bodily fluids, hair, bones, insects and plant and animal remains to help identify victims and support criminal investigations.
Using technology in the lab and in the field, forensic biologists collect and analyze biological evidence found on clothing, weapons and other surfaces to determine the time and cause of death.
They keep detailed logs and write reports about what they find. Attention to detail is critical, because a single mistake can cause the evidence to be thrown out of court. Senior-level forensic biologists may testify in court about their findings.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids. Hematology is the study of morphology and physiology of blood
Origin of species
Detection of blood
Barr body identification
Forensic botanists look to plant life in order to gain information regarding possible crimes. Leaves, seeds and pollen found either on a body or at the scene of a crime can offer valuable information regarding the timescales of a crime and also if the body has been moved between two or more different locations. The forensic study of pollen is known as forensic palynology and can often produce specific findings of location of death, decomposition and time of year.
It is the scientific study of insects of forensic importance for the medico-legal investigations 1. PMI Determination 2. Entomtoxicology
DNA BASED TECHNIQUES
DNA based evidence has become a significant tool that many law enforcement investigators now have at their disposal. DNA evidence can definitively link a suspect to either a crime scene or victim. Nuclear DNA evidence has been recovered from blood, semen, saliva, skin cells and hair. Furthermore Mitochondrial DNA can be recovered from both bone and teeth dating back thousands of years. Laboratory analysis of DNA evidence generally involves the sample being amplified and quantified by a form of the Polymerase chain reaction known as Quantitative PCR or qPCR. (PCR) amplification of any sample recovered followed by sequencing via Capillary electrophoresis in order to obtain a DNA profile which can be compared to suspect DNA.
DNA can also be extracted from animals and used to at least identify the species, for example bird or bat remains on an airplane or wind turbine.
• Department of Forensic Biology is working on various aspects of bio-forensic significance. We are keen to establish a research centre of excellence in the area.
• The entomology plays key role in investigation of crimes in forensic studies. We are planning to develop a sophisticated entomology laboratory with controlled environmental conditions (Temperature and Humidity).
• The limnology plays vital role in Drowning investigation. We are planning to develop regional diatom database.
• We are planning to develop a well-equipped DNA fingerprinting laboratory and criminal DNA databank by using DNA sequences.
1.Mr. Arun Digambar Ghuge
M.Sc. Biotechnology (NET CSIR–UGC, NET-ICAR, GATE)
2.Mr.Sandeep Gajanan Sangle
M.Sc. Biotechnology (CSIR-UGC NET/ MH-SET/ GATE)